Start With a Healthful Diet
Diet should be low in simple carbohydrates, moderates in fat & high in proteins. That means a diet that’s rich in vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes and low in refined grains, sugary foods, and saturated and trans fats. You can include fish, poultry, and other lean meats, and dairy foods. Aim for 30 to 35 grams of fibre a day from plant foods, since fibre helps fill you up and slows absorption of carbohydrates
Consume a Variety of Foods
Not all the nutrients and other substances in foods that contribute to good health have been identified, so eating a wide variety of foods helps ensure that you get all of the disease-fighting potentials that foods offer.
Keep an Eye on Portions
Sure, you can eat all the broccoli and spinach you want, but for higher-calorie foods, portion control is the key. In recent years, serving sizes have ballooned. In restaurants, choose an appetizer instead of an entree or split a dish with a friend. Don’t order anything that’s been “supersized.”
Eat Plenty of Fruits & Vegetables
Aim for 2-5 servings of fruits & vegetables, for a low-calorie diet & getting satiety. Include green, orange, red, blue/purple and yellow produce. The nutrients, fibre and other compounds in these foods may help protect against certain types of cancer and other diseases. Legumes, rich in fibre, count as vegetables, though are moderately high in calories. Choose whole fruits over juice for more fibre.
Get More Whole Grains
At least half your grains should be whole grains, such as whole wheat, barley and oats. Whole grains retain the bran and germ and thus all (or nearly all) of the nutrients and fibre of the grain. Look for a product labelled “100% whole wheat” or “100% whole grain.”
Limit Refined Grains, Added Sugar
The refined carbohydrates in white bread, regular pasta and most snack foods have little or no dietary fibre and have been stripped of many nutrients. Also, limit foods with added sugar, such as soda and candy. These are sources of empty calories that contribute to weight gain. Many sugary foods are also high in fat, so they’re even more calorie-dense.
Enjoy More Fish and Nuts
Nuts, fatty fish, avocados and vegetable oils supply healthy unsaturated fats. Still, it’s best to eat them in place of other high-calorie foods. For instance, substitute olive or canola oil for butter. Fatty fish helps reduce heart disease risks and has other benefits, largely because of its omega-3 polyunsaturated fats.
Cut Down on Animal Fat
Saturated fats, especially from red meat and processed meat, boost LDL (“bad”) cholesterol. To limit your intake, choose lean meats, skinless poultry and nonfat or low-fat dairy products. It’s also a good idea to replace saturated fats with “good” fats, found in nuts, fish and vegetable oils, not with refined carbohydrates such as white bread and snack foods.
Trans fats are supplied by partially hydrogenated vegetable oils used in many processed foods (such as commercial baked goods, snack foods and stick margarines) and fast foods (such as French fries). Trans fats raise LDL (“bad”) cholesterol and also reduce HDL (“good”) cholesterol, increasing the risk of heart disease.
Keep Sodium Down, Potassium Up
Excess sodium raises blood pressure & water retention in body in many people and has other harmful effects. Everyone else should aim for less than 2,300 milligrams a day. At the same time, consume more potassium, which lowers blood pressure. Potassium-rich foods include citrus fruits, bananas, potatoes, beans and yogurt.
Watch Your Calcium and Vitamin D
These nutrients are vital for bone health. Get calcium from low-fat or non fat dairy products and fortified foods such as some orange juices and soy drinks. If you can’t get 1,000 to 1,200 mg a day from foods, take a calcium supplement.
Choose Food Over Supplements
Supplements cannot substitute for a healthy diet nor low calorie diet, which supplies countless other potentially beneficial compounds besides vitamins and minerals. Foods also provide the “synergy” that many nutrients require to be efficiently used in the body. In addition, many people need calcium as well as vitamin D supplements to meet recommended intakes.
Be Aware of Liquid Calories
Some liquid calories come from healthy beverages, such as milk and 100 percent fruit juice. But most come from soda and other sweetened beverages and alcoholic drinks, which have lots of calories yet few, if any, nutrients. Though juice is more nutritious than soft drinks, it’s also high in calories, so most people should drink no more than one cup a day.Weight conscious people better way to avoid these types of calories which incorporate in weight gain.
If you drink, do so in moderation. Because alcohol also gives calories (empty calories) which contribute in weight.While alcohol in moderation has heart benefits, higher intakes can lead to a wide range of health problems.
Broca’s Index for Ideal Body Weight
Height in centimeters – 100 = Normal weight
Normal weight – 10% = Ideal weight
Hamwi Equation for Ideal Body Weight
For Male= 106 + (6 X inches) % 2.2
For Female=100 + (5 X inches) % 2.2
Consult with a Dietician in Pune